Athlete's Foot - If you are an athlete of any kind then one thing you should always be trying to avoid getting is athlete's foot, which an infection of the foot caused by a fungus. Of course, you don't really need to be an athlete to get this. To avoid getting athlete's foot it is important to wear moisture wicking socks while you workout to prevent your feet from getting too moist. It is also important for everyone to dry their feet thoroughly after they get out of the shower. Therapeutic Exercises (TE) including stretching and strengthening exercises to regain range of motion and strengthen the foot and effected muscle. Orthotics is designed to correct faulty foot function reducing the amount of ankle role and arch flattening during the gait cycle. In turn this will reduce the amount of internal rotation of the ankles, legs and knees. By correcting over-pronation orthotics re-align the feet and ankle bones to their neutral position, restoring our natural foot function. Therefore, orthotics not only helps alleviateproblems in the feet but also in otherparts of the body such as the knees and lower back. Only podiatrists can prescribe and dispense custom-made rigid orthotics. They are made from a plaster cast (foot impression) and they can be quite expensive. Because young children are unlikely to suspect or identify flat feet on their own, it is a good idea for parents or other adult caregivers to check on this themselves. Besides visual inspection, parents should notice whether a child begins to walk oddly or clumsily, for example on the outer edges of the feet, or to limp, during long walks, and to ask the child whether he or she feels foot pain or fatigue during such walks. Children who complain about calf muscle pains or any other pains around the foot area may be developing or have flat feet. Pain or discomfort may also develop in the knee joints. So if the foot is flat, one of these muscles is probably weak and the other is possibly in spasm or at least tight. At this point you might refer your client to a massage therapist , however, many are not familiar with, nor trained in the intricacies of the feet. An osteopath is likely your best recommendation (or a chiropractor). Most in the medical profession will defer to the use of orthotics to correct the misalignment. Orthotics can support the structure and relieve a degree of the pain, but they’re not aimed at correcting the cause of the problem. The examination varies according to the age of the child. For the first four to five days after birth, the foot lies in an acutely dorsiflexed position with the top of the foot in contact with the anterolateral surface of the leg. The heel is in dorsiflexion, and the forefoot is markedly abducted. When the foot is plantar-flexed, a concavity appears in the sinus tarsi area with the overlying skin becoming taut with attempted plantar-flexion. In more severe cases, the foot cannot initially be plantar-flexed much beyond neutral. Overall, however, the foot is flexible and both the heel and the forefoot can be passively corrected into varus. Shoes that do not bendin the arch, hard heel counters to hold you straighter, cushioninnersoles, cushion heel and sole materials like vibram, felt U'sor heel pads with cut outs to suspend the irritated site in airand force the foot to bear weight on the outer edges of the bone.Custom orthotics with various cushion and weight transfersystems, and other build ups. Even raising the heel height tobear more weight on the ball of the foot may be used. Again it istrial and error. What works best for one person may not work atall on another person. A normal foot forms an arch when one is standing, and this is formed by the bones which are supported by ligaments and tendons. The foot’s longitudinal arch allows the inner part of the foot to be slightly raised above the ground. People with flat feet (also called pes planus) have fallen arches, so that the gap under the foot is lost. Anatomy of the Foot With constant stretching and strain on the plantar fascia, inflammation may occur, a condition called plantar fasciitis. Repeated pulling on the insertion of the ligament on the heel or calcaneus may lead to heel pain, which is the most common effect of plantar fasciitis. When you do have pain in your arch, it could be a warning sign of fallen arches or flat feet. Although this painful foot condition is generally not a serious problem in and of itself, other physical problems may develop over time as a result. Also, overworking one's arch can also cause leg cramps and even low back pain. Keep in mind that the arch itself serves as a shock absorber for your knees, back, and even the rest of your body. Without this natural shock absorption, the everyday daily pounding being transmitted up through your entire body can have a deleterious affect over time.